Connecticut Legends: Francis Pratt and Amos Whitney

Connecticut’s beloved airline manufacturer owes its heritage to two men who lived before flying was even a thought in nearly anybody’s mind. Francis Pratt and Amos Whitney, in fact, started their company by creating wholly different machines.

Their journey from machine manufacturers to legends in Connecticut’s history is a testament to their innovation, dedication, and the power of collaboration.

Two Forces Unite

Workers in Factory Photo

The industrial landscape of Hartford, Connecticut, in the 19th century was a magnet for innovators and inventors. Among them were Francis Pratt and Amos Whitney, two individuals whose paths would cross in this bustling city, leading to a partnership that would change the course of manufacturing history.

According to the New England Historical Society, Francis Pratt was born in Peru, NY on February 15, 1827. He was drawn to Hartford by the promise of work with the renowned machine manufacturer, Lincoln & Company. Here, he designed the Lincoln Miller, a machine tool that would revolutionize the manufacturing of gun parts at the Colt Armory. This invention, which featured a unique “screw feed with a quick-return hand motion,” is considered the most important machine tool of the 19th century.

Amos Whitney, on the other hand, had a lineage that boasted of invention – he was the cousin of the famous inventor Eli Whitney. Born in Biddeford, ME on October 8, 1832, Whitney moved to Hartford to work for Colt’s Manufacturing. It was in this industrial backdrop that the two met, united by the modified Lincoln Miller which they adapted for sewing applications while at Phoenix Iron Works.

Innovation Powerhouse

Eli Whitney

With the success of the Lincoln Miller, Pratt and Whitney’s partnership blossomed. They ventured out, establishing their own company and setting the stage for a series of innovations that would cement their legacy in the annals of manufacturing history.

According to Pratt and Whitney, after the success of the modified Lincoln Miller, the duo established the Pratt & Whitney machine company. Using Pratt’s Lincoln Miller as a blueprint, the company went on to manufacture a staggering 150,000 machines. In 1879, they further expanded their innovative portfolio by hiring W.A. Rogers and G.M. Bond. This collaboration led to the creation of the Rogers-Bond comparator, a machine that not only made precision manufacturing more efficient but also established the standard for an inch, accurate to millionths of inches.

While the concept of interchangeable parts can be traced back to Eli Whitney, it was not widely adopted in early manufacturing. According to the National Museum of American History, Pratt was passionate about this concept and worked tirelessly to institutionalize it in their business. This move was pivotal to Pratt & Whitney’s success. By 1885, they began manufacturing the standard measuring machine, bringing uniformity to the industry. This innovation was so impactful that, by 1893, the inch was officially recognized as a standard form of measurement.

The Manufacturing Work Continues

As with all great partnerships, there comes a time when the torch needs to be passed on. For Pratt and Whitney, their legacy was far from over, even as they stepped away from the limelight.

Amos Whitney helmed the company as its president until his retirement in 1901. This was a mere year before the sad demise of his partner, Pratt. The company underwent a transition when it was acquired by Niles-Bement-Pond, a prominent manufacturing company based in Ohio.

Yet, the original essence of Pratt & Whitney lived on. Today, it continues its operations in Bloomfield, CT as Pratt & Whitney Measurement Systems. Their legacy is vast and varied, from introducing the first noiseless typewriter and automated scales for coal and grain to pioneering innovations in laser technology for measurement systems.

The Dawn of a New Era

As the 20th century progressed, the world was on the cusp of an aviation revolution. While Pratt & Whitney had made its mark in machine manufacturing, the skies beckoned with promise and potential. Enter Frederick Rentschler, a man with a vision for the future of aviation.

As JSTOR says, Frederick Rentschler was not new to the world of engines when he joined Pratt & Whitney. He had previously been associated with Wright Aeronautical, where he gained invaluable experience in aircraft engine design and manufacturing. Recognizing the limitations of existing aircraft engines, Rentschler was driven by the idea of creating a more powerful and reliable engine.

In collaboration with a team of skilled engineers, Rentschler embarked on a mission to design an air-cooled radial engine. According to the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, this innovative design was not only more efficient but also eliminated the need for liquid cooling systems, making aircraft lighter and more maneuverable.

Revolutionizing Aviation

PRATT & WHITNEY_ How Jet Engines Work

Introduction: With the successful design of the air-cooled radial engine, Rentschler was poised to revolutionize the aviation industry. His leadership and vision were instrumental in navigating Pratt & Whitney into uncharted territories, ensuring its legacy in the world of aviation.

Under Rentschler’s guidance, Pratt & Whitney introduced the Wasp engine in 1925. This engine quickly gained recognition for its unmatched performance and reliability. It set numerous records and became the preferred choice for many pioneering flights, including Amelia Earhart’s historic solo journey across the Atlantic.

Rentschler’s vision extended beyond just engine manufacturing. He played a pivotal role in the formation of United Aircraft and Transport Corporation, which later became United Technologies Corporation. This conglomerate brought together leading companies in the aviation sector, ensuring synergy and collaboration in pushing the boundaries of what was possible in the skies.


Who were the predecessors of Frederick Rentschler in the aviation industry?

Before Rentschler, pioneers like the Wright brothers and Glenn Curtiss played significant roles in the early days of aviation. However, in the context of Pratt & Whitney, Francis Pratt and Amos Whitney were the foundational figures before the company ventured into aviation.

Did Pratt & Whitney solely focus on aviation post-Rentschler’s leadership?

While aviation became a significant focus, Pratt & Whitney continued its legacy in precision manufacturing and other areas of innovation.

How did the Wasp engine compare to its contemporaries?

The Wasp engine was revolutionary for its time, offering superior performance, reliability, and efficiency compared to other engines of the era.

Were there any significant collaborations between Pratt & Whitney and other aviation companies during Rentschler’s time?

Yes, under Rentschler’s vision, Pratt & Whitney collaborated with various aviation entities, most notably through the formation of the United Aircraft and Transport Corporation.

How has Pratt & Whitney contributed to space exploration?

Beyond aviation, Pratt & Whitney has been involved in the development of propulsion systems and technologies that have been instrumental in space missions and exploration.

Final Words

The legacy of Connecticut’s legends, from Francis Pratt and Amos Whitney to Frederick Rentschler, is a testament to innovation, vision, and relentless pursuit of excellence. Their contributions have not only shaped industries but have also inspired countless individuals to dream big and reach for the skies.

As we delve into the annals of history, we are reminded of the power of collaboration, innovation, and the indomitable human spirit.